Idioms from Greek Mythology
Notable Greek figures—from philosophers to mathematicians and scientists— helped shape the world we know today so it is no surprised that they enriched our vocabulary as well. From words like democracy, library, to the modern alphabet, and many idioms and expressions, the Greeks gave us a lot. Ancient fables also spawned innumerable expressions that we still use today.Here are some idioms from Greek mythology you’ll hear quite frequently in English.
Achilles’ Heel: an individual’s weak spot
From the myth of Achilles, who was dipped in the River Styx in infancy to make him invincible. Only the part by which his mother held him – his heel – was untouched by the river water, and it was only here he could be wounded.
Adonis: a gorgeous man
Adonis was a young mortal man who was so handsome that the goddesses Aphrodite and Persephone fought over who would have him. When he died in Aphrodite’s arms, her tears and his blood mingled to become the anemone flower.
Amazonian: describing a strong woman
The Amazons were a tribe of warrior women; the daughters of Ares (god of war) and Harmonia (goddess of harmony).
Apple of Discord: An apple of discord is the core, kernel, or crux of an argument, or a small matter that could lead to a bigger dispute.
A Trojan Horse: a hollow wooden statue of a horse in which the Greeks concealed themselves in order to enter Troy.
(2) A person or thing intended secretly to undermine or bring about the downfall of an enemy or opponent.”the rebels may use this peace accord as a Trojan horse to try and take over”
(3) Computing: a program designed to breach the security of a computer system while ostensibly performing some innocuous function.
Between a Rock and a Hard Place: If someone is stuck between a rock and a hard place, they have a very difficult decision to make.
The idiom comes from the myth of Odysseus, who while sailing home from the Trojan War had to sail between Scylla and Charybdis. Scylla was a sea monster who lived on a cliff and would eat sailors who passed by her, and Charybdis was a large whirlpool near Scylla’s cliff that would destroy (ruin, take apart), any ship that sailed too close. Odysseus had to figure out how to get past Scylla without getting his ship destroyed by Charybdis, and was, therefore, stuck between a rock and a hard place.
According to the poet Ovid, Chaos was what existed before the gods were created, a ‘gap’ created by the splitting of heaven and hell. Chaos was a primordial god, along with Gaia (Earth) and Tartarus (hell).
Chronology: a list of events in order
Derived from Cronos, the god of time.
Man’s best friend – the dog
From the story of Odysseus, who returned home from his long quest to find his dog had held on to life just long enough to see his master one last time.
Echo: the repetition of sound
Echo was a mountain nymph who loved to talk and talk – until Hera cursed her so that all she could do was repeat others’ words. When she died, her voice was left behind, as the echo.
Elysian Fields: a place or position to be aspired to. the place at the ends of the earth to which certain favored heroes were conveyed by the gods after death.
Fate: the course of events as determined by a higher power
The Fates were three sisters who spun the thread of life. Lachesis decided the length of each person’s thread, Clotho spun it and Atropos severed it when she decided that the time had come. No one could alter their work.
Food/nectar of the gods: the most delicious of tastes
The gods lived on nectar and ambrosia. The latter could make a human immortal.
Fury: intense anger
The Furies were ancient deities who acted as judge, jury and executioner, hearing cases against mortals and exacting bloody and painful vengeance for crimes. They were incredibly ugly: snakes for hair, bat wings and black skin.
Giant/titan: very large entity
The Giants were the offspring of Gaia – the name means ‘of the earth’. They are often confused with the Titans, who were the children of Gaia and Uranus (the sky god). The Titans preceded the Olympian gods (Zeus and co.), who would overthrow them to take control of the world. Our modern terms ‘giant’ and ‘titan’ relate to the power of these gods rather than their actual size.
Harp on: to talk on and on tediously
The Harpies were horrid winged creatures, half-woman and half-bird, who tormented King Phineus. They feature in a story of Jason and the Argonauts.
Herculean effort: an impressive try
Relating to Hercules (in fact spelled Heracles in Ancient Greek), who carried out twelve difficult labours on his heroic quest.
Hypnosis: a state of consciousness in which a person can receive suggestions
Hypnos was the personification of sleep. He lived in a dark, silent cave, and was seen to be a kind and gentle god.
No stone unturned: search all over
A quotation from a play by Euripedes. Eurystheus tells his men to leave no stone unturned in their hunt for Hercules’s sons.
Labyrinth: an intricate maze
From the myth of King Minos and the Minotaur. Minos had the master craftsman Daedalus build the Labyrinth to contain the beast. Theseus eventually navigated the maze and slayed the Minotaur.
Mentor: an experienced guide
Derived from the stories of Athena, goddess of wisdom. She disguised herself as a man named Mentor in order to guide Odysseus’s son.
Midas Touch: describes a person who has good fortune
From the story of King Midas, who wished that all he touched would turn to gold.
Narcissistic: describing a person who loves him-/herself
Narcissus was half-nymph, half-god and all beauty. His vanity was his downfall; when he saw his reflection in a pool of water, he could not tear his eyes away – and he starved to death.
Nemesis: an adversary
From the goddess Nemesis, who was in charge of doling out divine retribution to any mortal guilty of hubris.
Odyssey: a great journey
From the epic poem by Homer that tells of Odysseus’s long, adventure-filled journey home from the Trojan War.
Pandora’s Box: something that, if unleashed, will cause trouble
Pandora was the first mortal woman. She had one instruction from Zeus: don’t open the jar (now known as a box) he gave her. Of course she did – and in doing so released all the evil we now have in the world.
Phobia: a deep-seated fear and aversion
From Phobos, the god of fear. He was the son of Aphrodite (love) and Ares (war), and the twin brother of Deimos (terror).
Siren Song: used in reference to the appeal of something that is alluring but also potentially harmful or dangerous.
Sour Grapes: If someone has sour grapes, they’re jealous of something or didn’t get something that they wanted.
This idiom from Greek mythology comes from Aesop’s fable “Fox and the Grapes.” In this fable, a fox sees some delicious-looking grapes hanging high up in a tree, and tries everything he can to get to them. He fails, however, gives up, and walks away, consoling himself (making himself feel better) by saying that the grapes would’ve been sour anyway.
Touch Wood: a phrase you say when you don’t want to jinx (foreshadow, make it happen because you said it) something before it happens. It’s a bit superstitious, but a lot of people will touch, tap or knock on wood when they’re talking about something they hope doesn’t happen right after they have said it!
This phrase and tradition is very, very old, and comes from a good luck practice of the Ancient Greeks. They believed that nymphs and spirits lived in trees, and so the Greeks would touch trees to bring good luck.
Typhoon: a tropical cyclone
From Typhon, son of Gaia and Tartarus, the most terrible monster of Greek mythology; a huge serpentine creature.
Idioms found in Oxford Dictionary of Idioms and Dictionary of Idioms and their Origins
1. An Achilles Heel
2. Apple of Discord
3. Battle of Giants
4. Sow Dragon’s Teeth
5. A Golden Age
6. A Labor of Hercules
7. In the Lap of the Gods
8. The Shirt of Nessus
9. A Pandora’s Box
10. Pile Pelion on Ossa
11. A Procustean Bed
12. A Sop to Cerberus
13. A Trojan Horse
14. Midas Touch
15. Scylla and Charybdis
16. Cut the Gordian Knot
17. (Not) to Have a Clue
18. Halcyon Days
19. Judgment of Paris
20. Rise from the Ashes
21. Siren Song
22. Elysian Fields
Read about the oldest alphabet in the world here!
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